At the request of the Standing Committee on Rules of Practice and Procedure, the Advisory Committee on Civil Rules sponsored a conference last week at Duke University School of Law. The purpose of the conference was to explore the current costs and burdens of civil litigation, particularly discovery, and to discuss possible solutions. The Conference was designed in part to highlight some new empirical research done by the Federal Judicial Center, and others, to assess the degree of satisfaction with the performance of the present system and the suggestions of lawyers as to how the system might be improved. The Conference included insights and perspectives from lawyers, judges and academics, on the discovery process (particularly e-discovery), pleadings, and dispositive motions. Other topics considered included judicial management and the tools available to judges to expedite the litigation process, the process of settlement, and the experience of the state courts on these issues.
Specifically, the empirical data from the FJC was discussed by Judge Rothstein, and Emery Lee and Tom Willging of the FJC; the ABA Litigation Section research data was to be reported by Lorna Schofield; the NELA Data was next. Prof. Marc Galanter commented on vanishing jury trial data. Litigation cost data from the Searle Institute, and RAND data were circulated. The next section of the agenda focused on pleadings and dispositive motions, fact based pleading, Twombly, Iqbal. Participants included several judges and academics. The following panel asked about excessive discovery, and included practitioners, judges, and academics. The judicial management issue, and the level of early judicial involvement, was next.
Day Two focused on e-discovery and the degree to which the new rules are working or not. The U.S. Chamber Institute for Legal Reform weighed in with a white paper. The conference turned next to whether the process was structured sufficiently for trial and settlements as they really occur, i.e., should the endgame be viewed as settlement rather than trial. Corporate counsel, outside lawyers, public and governmental lawyers weighed in next. The following panel offered perspectives from the state courts. Finally, the Bar Association and lawyer group proposals were on the table. The Lawyers for Civil Justice, DRI, Federation of Defense & Corporate Counsel, and International Association of Defense Counsel submitted a white paper.
One speaker summed up the two-day discussion, suggesting that consensus had formed around the proposition that federal judges should provide strong, early, consistent case management, although plaintiff lawyers felt there was no need to give the judges any more formal authority. But there was great disagreement on critical questions of the scope of discovery, the breadth of possible voluntary disclosures, and pleading requirements. Readers have read my posts about Twombly and Iqbal, which clarified the requirements of what must be included in a complaint.
A survey of the Oregon system, a fact-based pleading approach, was presented by the Institute for the Advancement of the American Legal System. It has not led to more dismissals, and most observers agreed that fact-based pleading was revealing the key issues and narrowing the contentions earlier.
The notion that the cost of the process is so large that it may be making litigation beyond the reach of many potential litigants is something a number of participant expressed concern about. One judge noted that he now requires lawyers to estimate the costs of discovery, and report that to their client. One participant raised the issue of cutting off discovery for defendants who move to
dismiss, although it is unclear how that would be an effective remedy for any current unsatisfactory case management methods.