Defendants were granted summary judgment in a case in which the parents of a young woman alleged her death was caused by the infusion treatment Remicade. Mack v. AmerisourceBergen Drug Corp., 2009 WL 4342513 (D. Md. 11/24/09). The lesson here for defendants is to put plaintiffs to their proof on every element of a claim.
Crystal Ann Mack was diagnosed with a severe form of Crohn’s disease, an inflammatory disease affecting the gastrointestinal tract. In the autumn of 2006, Ms. Mack was hospitalized on two occasions and ultimately diagnosed with anemia, vomiting, weight loss, and various other symptoms. Her treating physician recommended that Ms. Mack undergo Remicade treatments. She received four infusions, in accordance with the medication’s dosing instructions. Later, Mack fell unconscious in her home and died. Mack’s parents sued three defendants, the drug makers and the distributor, alleging that Mack died of a cardiac arrhythmia that was proximately caused by Remicade.
The defendants sought summary judgment. Analyzing the product liability claims first, the court concluded that plaintiffs’ claims cannot survive summary judgment because they did not establish an issue of fact on whether Remicade is a defective product. Plaintiffs made great efforts to prove specific and general causation, but they made no adequate showing with respect to the issue of defect. Because a showing of defect is an independent prerequisite for a products liability claim, the court didn’t even feel the need not address whether plaintiffs satisfied their burden on the issue of causation.
In order to recover on a product defect claim, under the applicable state law, a plaintiff must prove that a defect which renders the product unreasonably dangerous might arise from the design of the product, a deficiency in its manufacture, or from the absence or inadequacy of any instructions or warnings as to its safe and appropriate use. The court noted that the plaintiffs did not assert a failure-to-warn theory.
Under Maryland law, courts may apply both the “risk/utility” test and the “consumer expectation” test when evaluating the efficacy of design defect claims. The “risk/utility” test involves an assessment of “whether the benefits of a product outweigh the dangers of its design.” Alternatively, a drug could be deemed unreasonably dangerous if it is “dangerous to an extent beyond that which would be contemplated by the ordinary consumer who purchases it, with the ordinary knowledge common to the community as to its characteristics. Here, plaintiffs merely cited the legal standards for alleging and proving defect.
Moreover, plaintiffs failed to present expert testimony on the issue of defect. The testimony of the doctors largely focused on the issue of causation, and they failed to explain how Remicade was unreasonably dangerous. This shortcoming was especially damaging to plaintiffs’ claims, because the issue of defect in this case involved technical medical questions beyond the common knowledge of laypersons.
Nor was there sufficient circumstantial evidence of defect. Plaintiffs’ counsel proffered several miscellaneous documents, including internal corporate memoranda and correspondence that referred to the exhibited side effects of Remicade. However, such documents did not militate for the submission of the defect issue to a jury. The fact that a drug may exhibit certain adverse side effects does not, by itself, create an issue of material fact on whether the drug is unreasonably dangerous. The courts have recognized that all drugs involve risks of adverse side effects in those who take them. In the face of FDA approval, plaintiffs would need to provide a much greater evidentiary showing to establish that the medication’s attendant risks outweigh its benefits, the necessary showing under the “risk/utility” test.