The federal inter-agency task force investigating alleged problems with Chinese-made drywall released initial results of three studies last week, which may impact the MDL litigation. The CPSC, the EPA, HUD, the CDC, and the Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry are members of the task force. Health departments in Florida, Louisiana, and Virginia have also participated in the task force. An executive summary of the studies, and the draft studies themselves are available here.
To date, close to 2000 consumers have contacted the CPSC to report alleged problems in their homes. The primary issues reported are: 1) corrosion, or blackening, of indoor metals, such as electrical components and central air conditioning system evaporator coils; and 2) various health symptoms, including persistent cough, bloody and runny noses, headaches, difficulty in breathing and irritated and itchy eyes and skin. Imported drywall from China came into more widespread use after hurricanes in 2004 and 2005 led to a surge in home reconstruction and caused shortages of North American-made drywall.
In sum, the three studies involved:
(1) Elemental and Chemical Testing: The study of the elemental and chemical composition of drywall samples showed higher concentrations of elemental sulfur and strontium in Chinese drywall than in non-Chinese drywall. The elemental and chemical testing of Chinese and non-Chinese drywall samples was undertaken to characterize the specific chemical composition of the drywall. The results were expected to identify differences between the two sets of drywall that might account for the reported corrosion and health issues. While the studies have discovered certain differences between Chinese and non-Chinese drywall, further studies must be completed, said the report, to determine any nexus between the drywall and the reported health and corrosion issues. The analysis was conducted on 17 samples of drywall collected from warehouses, suppliers and manufacturers. These samples were unpainted and uninstalled.
(2) Chamber Studies: Preliminary results of ongoing testing to detect gases emitted from drywall in laboratory chambers showed higher emissions of total volatile sulfur gases from Chinese than from non-Chinese drywall. The chamber studies, conducted by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, were intended to isolate the chemicals emitted from drywall. From these chamber studies, said the task force, it was possible to isolate the drywall emissions from the interferences of other materials or furnishings in a house that might emit or absorb such emissions. No comprehensive exposure and risk assessment has yet been carried out.
(3) Indoor Air Studies: Indoor air testing of 10 homes in Florida and Louisiana was conducted to identify and measure contaminants and to inform a drywall home indoor air testing protocol. The tests did not detect the presence or found only very limited or occasional indications of sulfur compounds of particular interest to the task force – hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide. Concentrations of two known irritant compounds, acetaldehyde and
formaldehyde, were detected at concentrations that could exacerbate conditions such as asthma in sensitive populations, but were found in both homes with and without Chinese drywall. The levels of formaldehyde were not unusual for new homes, however, said the report. The results of the air testing in this very small sample of homes was being reported to offer a very preliminary indication of what compounds may be present in the indoor environments of homes in Florida and Louisiana with and without Chinese drywall.
The agencies expect the results of an air-sampling study of 50 homes in late November. An engineering analysis of electrical and fire safety issues is also forthcoming. .A study of long-term corrosion issues, that seeks to simulate decades of exposure and corrosion, will not be completed until June of 2010.
The study follows in the wake of the four-day U.S.-China summit that aimed to reinforce the notion that the United States—specifically the CPSC—will hold accountable importers of products into the United States if their products pose hazards or violate safety standards. The CPSC delegation reportedly discussed drywall safety concerns with Chinese government officials.
The CPSC stressed that this report was preliminary; the findings of each report released today must be considered within the limitations of each study and viewed in the context of the overall drywall investigation, which is still ongoing. While the studies have discovered certain differences between Chinese and non-Chinese drywall, further studies must be completed to determine any nexus between the drywall and the reported health and corrosion issues.