The California appeals court has affirmed a trial court’s decision to deny plaintiff’s motion for class certification in a case involving high definition (HD) television services. See Cohen v. DIRECTV, Inc., No. B204986, 2009 WL 3069116 (Cal. Ct. App. 2d Dist. 10/28/09).
A subscriber to services delivered by a satellite television company filed a proposed class action complaint alleging the company had disseminated false advertising to induce him and other subscribers to purchase more expensive HD services. The complaint alleged that DIRECTV switched its HDTV channels to a lower resolution, reducing the quality of the television images it transmits to its subscribers.
Importantly, the complaint did not allege that DIRECTV breached its subscribers’ contracts for satellite television services by allegedly transmitting a lower resolution television image than it was contract-bound to deliver. Instead, plaintiff alleged a species of fraud in the inducement, alleging that subscribers to DIRECTV’s HD services purchased those services in reliance on the company’s supposedly false advertising. In that vein, Cohen alleged that he and the other putative class members subscribed to the HD service package based upon DIRECTV’s national advertising and marketing. Thus, plaintiff asserted two causes of action: (1) violation of the Consumer Legal Remedies Act or “CLRA” (see Civ. Code, § 1750 et seq.), and (2) violation of the Unfair Competition Law or “UCL” (see Bus. & Prof. Code, § 17200).
Plaintiff requested the trial court to certify a class defined as follows: “Residents of the United States of America who subscribed to DIRECTV’s High Definition Programming Package.” The motion to certify the class was supported in significant part with evidence seeking to show DIRECTV’s print advertising and promotional materials for its HD Package; DIRECTV’s opposition to the motion for class certification was supported in large part by a number of declarations from subscribers to the company’s HD Package, each of whom explained that their individual decisions to buy the upgraded service had not been precipitated by any printed advertising or other promotional materials disseminated by DIRECTV.
California’s Code of Civil Procedure section 382 authorizes a representative plaintiff to pursue a class action “when the question [in the action] is one of a common or general interest, of many persons, or when the parties are numerous, and it is impracticable to bring them all before the court . . . .” A plaintiff moving for class certification must establish the existence of (1) an “ascertainable” class and (2) a “commonality” of interests among the members of the class. E.g., Lockheed Martin Corp. v. Superior Court, 29 Cal.4th 1096, 1103-1104 (2003).
The appeals court, first, disagreed with trial court which had found the proffered defined class not ascertainable. The defined class of all HD Package subscribers was sufficiently precise, with objective characteristics and transactional parameters which could be determined by DIRECTV’s own account records.
However, the class did fail on the issues surrounding commonality. In this proposed national class, subscribers’ legal rights would vary from one state to another state, and subscribers outside of California may well not be protected by the CLRA and UCL.
Beyond legal issues, the record supported the trial court’s finding that common issues of fact do not predominate in the proposed class because the class would clearly include subscribers who never saw DIRECTV advertisements or representations of any kind before deciding to purchase the company’s HD services. The proposed class would include subscribers who only saw and/or relied upon advertisements that contained no mention of technical terms regarding bandwidth or pixels, and also subscribers who purchased DIRECTV HD primarily based on word of mouth or because they saw DIRECTV’s HD in a store or at a friend’s or family member’s home.
Interestingly, the court of appeals distinguished the state’s supreme court’s recent decision in In re Tobacco II Cases, 46 Cal.4th 298 (2009). The opinion suggests that Tobacco II held that, for purposes of standing in context of the class certification issue in a “false advertising” case involving the UCL, the absent class members need not be assessed for the element of reliance. Or, in other words, class certification may not automatically be defeated on the ground of lack of standing upon a showing that class members did not all rely on common false advertising. The court of appeals found that Tobacco II essentially ruled that, for purposes of standing, as long as a named plaintiff is able to establish that he or she relied on a defendant’s false advertising, a absent class members may also be deemed to have standing, regardless of whether any of those class members have in any way relied upon the defendant’s allegedly improper conduct.
MassTortDefense readers will likely find that notion ridiculous, particularly when the courts typically do not enforce the ostensible requirement that named plaintiffs should be typical and adequate class representatives. In the contextual setting presented by the present case, however, Tobacco II was seen to be irrelevant because the issue of “standing” simply is not the same thing as the issue of “commonality.” Standing, generally speaking, is a matter addressed to the trial court’s jurisdiction because a plaintiff who lacks standing cannot state a valid cause of action. Commonality, on the other hand, in the context of the class certification issue, is a matter addressed to the practicalities and utilities of litigating a class action in the trial court. The court saw nothing in the language in Tobacco II which suggests that the state supreme court intended California trial courts to dispatch with an examination of commonality when addressing a motion for class certification.