The FDA is considering issuing guidelines on acrylamide content in food. The agency has published a notice seeking comments from industry on the issue.
Acrylamide is a chemical formed primarily in baked and fried foods by a reaction between sugars and the amino acid asparagine. The reaction is partly responsible for the golden color and tasty flavor of baked, fried, and toasted foods. In 2002, some Swedish scientists reported unexpectedly high levels of acrylamide in carbohydrate-rich foods and also published a study associating the chemical to cancer in laboratory rats. Further research subsequently determined that acrylamide can form in some foods during certain types of high-temperature cooking.
FDA has not yet issued guidance for manufacturers on reducing acrylamide in food. However, it is anticipated by the agency that new information will soon be available about the toxicology of acrylamide, which may shed light on acrylamide’s potential carcinogenicity in laboratory animals. Readers of MassTortDefense know how difficult it is to leap from animal studies to causation conclusions in human beings, because of the physiological and metabolism differences between species, the excessive dosages that are (and typically must be) given to experimental animals, and the varying biological defense mechanisms that species have to environmental insults.
International efforts to develop approaches to acrylamide mitigation are also beginning to prove successful. Moreover, FDA is aware that at least some manufacturers in the United States are seeking ways to reduce acrylamide in their products. In this context, FDA is considering issuing guidance for industry on reduction of acrylamide levels in food products.
Health Canada recently added acrylamide to that nation’s toxic substances list, as part of its ongoing review of over 200 chemical substances in commercial use. It stated that current consumption levels “may constitute a danger in Canada to human life or health,” but it also acknowledged that research into a possible carcinogenic link for humans has so far been inconclusive.
In fact, dietary intakes of acrylamide are not related to increased risks of brain cancer, according to a recently released study of 58,279 men and 62,573 women, published by Maastricht University in the Netherlands. J.G.F. Hogervorst, et al., “Dietary Acrylamide Intake and Brain Cancer Risk,” 18 Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention (2009). Researchers have also reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute that dietary acrylamide was not linked to lung cancer risk, and that the compounds may even reduce the risk in women. “Lung Cancer Risk in Relation to Dietary Acrylamide Intake,” 101(9) JNCI 651-662 (2009).
In seeking comments, the FDA has asked food manufacturers to respond with details of any manufacturing changes they have made, the success and cost-effectiveness of those changes, methods for acrylamide reduction that could be appropriate for smaller manufacturers, and changes to on-pack instructions for consumers to mitigate acrylamide formation.