The federal court has ordered plaintiffs in the MDL concerning the heart medication Digitek to respond to discovery relating to whether the individuals in each identified case had sufficient evidentiary support to justify filing their claim. The decision is also interesting for all those in mass torts struggling with plaintiffs’ typically inadequate responses to initial fact discovery and Plaintiff Fact Sheets. In re: Digitek Products Liability Litigation, MDL-1968 (S.D. W.Va.).
In April, 2008, the FDA announced a recall of the drug Digitek® (Digoxin) distributed by Mylan Bertek Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and UDL Laboratories, Inc. The recall stated that certain lots of the tablets may have contained more than the approved level of the drug’s active ingredient, thereby exposing patients with renal failure who consumed the drug to the risk of digitalis toxicity. Soon thereafter, the plaintiffs filed civil actions against the defendants in state and federal courts across the country. In August, 2008, the Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation entered an order establishing a multidistrict litigation proceeding, which consolidated federal Digitek® related actions for joint case management. The plaintiffs generally allege that the defendants manufactured, marketed, tested, promoted, and/or distributed Digitek® with inconsistent amounts of the active ingredient.
As is fairly typical, plaintiffs were required to fill out basic fact information about their use of the drug and alleged injuries in Plaintiff Fact Sheets. Such fact sheets are often used instead of interrogatories, and allow the parties and the court to assess the various types of cases in the mass tort. They can be crucial to decide on trial plan, the scope and timing of additional discovery, and even settlement analysis.
Defendants served three requests for admission in 39 individual cases, seeking information relating to whether the plaintiff in each identified case had sufficient evidentiary support to justify filing a claim. The requests at issue asked the plaintiff or their counsel to “admit that you did not serve Defendants with any of Plaintiff’s medical records when you served the Plaintiff Fact Sheet;” to “admit that you did not have any of Plaintiff’s medical records or pharmacy records in your possession when you filed the Complaint in this case;” and to “admit that you did not have Plaintiff’s medical records or pharmacy records in your possession when you served Defendants with the Plaintiff Fact Sheet.”
The Plaintiffs’ Steering Committee in the MDL submitted the plaintiffs’ master objections to the defendants’ requests. They argued that the discovery was premature: before the parties may begin
discovery on an individual case, that case must be selected for inclusion in a trial group. Second, they allege that the defendants are attempting to cure deficient Plaintiff Fact Sheets with the
requests, rather than through the deficiency process outlined in previous pre-trial orders. Third, in a preemptive strike, they argued that since the Plaintiff Fact Sheets constitute discovery responses, defendants cannot pursue sanctions for them under Rule 11. Finally, plaintiffs also asserted that the requests were not reasonably calculated to lead to the discovery of admissible evidence, and alleged that the targeted information is protected by the attorney-client privilege and/or the work product doctrine.
The court noted that the defendants have expressed serious concerns about the merits of many of the cases filed in the MDL. They believe that a large number of cases lack sufficient evidentiary support demonstrating that the identified plaintiffs exhibited digitalis toxicity as a result of ingesting nonconforming Digitek® tablets. The defendants are attempting to determine whether the plaintiffs served with the requests possessed their medical and pharmacy records at the time their complaints were filed and the Plaintiff Fact Sheets were submitted. The defendants suspect they were not. If their suspicions prove true, the answers to the requests may be used to support future Rule 11 motions for sanctions.
The court first held that the provisions and stipulations contained in previously entered pretrial orders do not prohibit the defendants from serving requests for admission on individual plaintiffs at this time.
Next, regarding the deficiency process, the court noted that the defendants were not seeking information that must be contained in a Plaintiff Fact Sheet. Rather, they are seeking Rule 11 information relating to whether the plaintiffs had a sufficient evidentiary basis to file suit. The requests specifically target information concerning whether the plaintiffs possessed their medical and pharmacy records at particular times. This information is outside the scope required to be disclosed in a Plaintiff Fact Sheet. The deficiency process described in pretrial orders has no application in determining whether the defendants’ requests for admission are proper.
Third, while the plaintiffs are correct that Plaintiff Fact Sheets are considered discovery responses according to the case management order, their argument about Rule 11 is premature because the defendants have not yet filed a Rule 11 motion for sanctions. Even so, the plaintiffs again missed the point of the defendants’ requests. The defendants were not attempting to discover whether the plaintiffs committed sanctionable conduct in their Plaintiff Fact Sheets. Instead, they were trying to gather information as to whether there were appropriate Rule 11 prefiling investigations.
Also, the court found that the requests were specifically aimed at discovering information relevant
to the defendants’ defense. If the plaintiffs in the 39 cases in fact failed to comply with Rule 11, serious issues arise as to the merits of those plaintiffs’ claims. The defendants would
be able to use the information gathered from the requests to support a defense that the claims lack
evidentiary basis. Thus, the information sought by the defendants is within the scope of discoverable material under Rule 26(b)(1).
Finally, the court acknowledged that information relating to Rule 11 may raise potential privilege
and conflict issues. However, if the information received by an attorney from a client is relevant to
whether a complaint is well-founded, it probably will eventually be disclosed, either in a pleading
or in later discovery. Schwarzer, Sanctions Under the New Federal Rule 11–A Closer Look, 104
F.R.D. 181, 199 (1985). Thus, the fact that information may be incorporated into work product does
not immunize it from disclosure.
In summary, based upon the allegations contained in the complaints, a prefiling investigation without first obtaining medical and pharmacy records would be reasonable only in an extremely
limited set of circumstances. The records would be essential in determining whether the plaintiffs
have a colorable claim. Rule 11 applies to the same extent in mass tort and multidistrict litigation as it does in more conventional disputes.The defendants’ requests for admission were sufficiently and narrowly tailored to reveal whether the plaintiffs were in possession of the relevant records at the time suit was initiated. The requests would not cause the plaintiffs any undue burden or hardship as the information necessary to answer the requests should be readily ascertainable.
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