Low doses of melamine did not cause severe kidney problems in children exposed to the industrial chemical during the recent tainted milk scandal arising from China, according to researchers reporting last week. In Lam, et al., Renal screening in children after exposure to low dose melamine in Hong Kong: a cross sectional study, 337 BMJ 2991 (2008), no severe adverse renal outcomes, such as acute renal failure or urinary tract obstruction, were detected in children after exposure to low doses of melamine. The results were similar to initial findings by other scientists in Hong Kong. The prevalence of suspected melamine related abnormalities on ultrasonography was only 0.2%.
The researchers looked at more than 3,000 children aged 12 or younger. All of them had consumed melamine-tainted products for a month or more. Every child was given a urine test, and an ultrasound was performed on their kidneys. Only one child had a kidney stone, and seven had possible melamine-related deposits in their kidneys. An additional 208 tested positive for blood in their urine, a possible sign of kidney troubles.
The study is one of the first to measure the health impact of exposure to low doses of melamine, which was apparently added to infant formula and other foods in mainland China to boost their protein content and help them pass muster on protein tests. Some contaminated products were sold in Hong Kong, but the researchers noted that those products contained much lower concentrations of melamine than the tainted products sold in mainland China.
Since early September, melamine-contaminated baby formula has sickened more than 54,000 children in China and is being blamed for at least four deaths. Melamine has been detected outside China in candies, chocolates, and coffee drinks. This latest finding may suggest that outside of China, the chances are more remote of a similar level of injury. MassTortDefense has posted on the issues here and here.