Surveys show that getting fit is one of the top 5 New Year's resolutions. So perhaps timely that a federal court recently dismissed a proposed nationwide class concerning fitness-tracker wristbands. See Frenzel v. Aliphcom, No. 14-cv-03587-WHO (N.D. Cal., 12/29/14). While there also was discussion in the opinion of the motion to dismiss various counts of the complaint under California law, let's focus on the class allegations.
Defendant markets and sells a fitness-tracker wristband that contains an accelerometer designed to track the user's daily movements and sleep patterns. Users can connect, or "sync," their device to a mobile application that helps them set personal exercise and diet goals, monitor their progress, and collaborate with other users. The product box states: "Battery life up to 10 days." It is available in major retail stores across the country and online. Defendant has distributed three generations of the device.
Frenzel alleged that each generation has been plagued with power problems, including significant delay in charging, syncing problems, flashing lights indicating low charge, extremely short battery life, and failure to charge at all. Even with later generations, plaintiff alleged, consumers continued to complain about the device's performance, and multiple articles appeared online describing the ongoing power problems.
Frenzel resides in Kansas City, Missouri and is a Missouri citizen. In November 2012, Frenzel purchased a second generation device, and before purchasing the device, Frenzel allegedly reviewed defendant's marketing materials and representations, including that the battery is expected to last for 10 days when fully charged. Within a few months, Frenzel's device allegedly stopped maintaining its charge. Frenzel contacted defendant and was issued a replacement second generation version. The replacement also allegedly experienced power problems as well. On the basis of these allegations, Frenzel sought to represent a national class defined as all persons who purchased any of the three generations for personal use, excluding those who purchased the product for resale.
Defendant moved to dismiss. A motion to dismiss for failure to state a claim under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 12(b)(6) tests the legal sufficiency of a complaint. Navarro v. Block, 250 F.3d 729, 732 (9th Cir. 2001). A complaint must contain sufficient factual matter, accepted as true, to state a claim to relief that is plausible on its face. Ashcroft v. Iqbal, 556 U.S. 662, 678 (2009). A claim is facially plausible when it allows the court to draw the reasonable inference that the defendant is liable for the misconduct alleged. Id. In considering whether the complaint is sufficient to state a claim, the court need not accept as true allegations that contradict matters properly subject to judicial notice. In re Gilead Scis. Sec. Litig., 536 F.3d 1049, 1055 (9th Cir. 2008). Nor is the court required to accept as true allegations that are merely conclusory, unwarranted deductions of fact, or unreasonable inferences. Id. It is within the district court's purview to reject, as implausible, allegations that are too speculative to warrant further factual development. See Dahlia v. Rodriguez, 735 F.3d 1060, 1076 (9th Cir. 2013).
A threshold issue was choice of law. Defendant contended that under Mazza v. Am. Honda Motor Co., 666 F.3d 581 (9th Cir. 2012), Frenzel's claims should be governed by the law of the state in which he purchased his device (which Frenzel conceded was not California). Defendant argued that plaintiff's claims under California law (the CLRA, UCL, and FAL) must therefore be dismissed. Also, defendant made the separate argument that under Mazza, Frenzel cannot maintain a national class action that would apply California law to nonresident class members who purchased their devices in other states.
In Mazza, a putative class sued Honda for violations of the CLRA, UCL, and FAL. Honda was headquartered in California, and the alleged misrepresentations emanated from California, but the transaction that caused the alleged injury (i.e., the lease or purchase of a Honda automobile), had occurred in other states for the majority of class members. The Ninth Circuit reversed the district court's certification of a national class after concluding that, under California's choice of law rules, each class member's consumer protection claim should be governed by the consumer protection laws of the jurisdiction in which the transaction took place. The Ninth Circuit found that there were material differences between the consumer protection regimes of California and a number of other states, and that each state's interest in deciding for itself how to balance the range of products and prices offered to consumers with the legal protections afforded to them outweighed California's attenuated interest in applying its law to residents of foreign states. Id. at 590-94.
Importantly, since Mazza, a number of courts have dismissed CLRA, UCL, and/or FAL claims asserted by named plaintiffs (or on behalf of unnamed class members) who did not purchase the defendant's product in California. See, e.g., Frezza v. Google Inc., No. 12-cv-00237-RMW, 2013 WL 1736788, at *5-6 (N.D. Cal. Apr. 22, 2013); Granfield v. NVIDIA Corp., No. 11-cv-05403-JW, 2012 WL 2847575, at *3 (N.D. Cal. July 11, 2012); Littlehale v. Hain Celestial Grp., Inc., No. 11-cv-06342-PJH, 2012 WL 5458400, at *1-2 (N.D. Cal. July 2, 2012).
Notwithstanding the argument that discovery might be needed to make a choice of law decision, the court here found that in the circumstances of this case, it was not appropriate to delay until class certification to consider the choice of law issue. First, although Mazza was decided at class certification, the principle articulated in Mazza applies generally and is instructive even when addressing a motion to dismiss. In factually analogous cases, Mazza was not only relevant but controlling, even at the pleading phase. Second, while choice of law analysis is often a fact-specific inquiry, this does not necessarily mean that it can never be conducted on a motion to dismiss. There are cases in which further development of the factual record is not reasonably likely to materially impact the choice of law determination. In such cases, there is no benefit to deferring the choice of law analysis until class certification.
The court pointed out that in Werdebaugh v. Blue Diamond Growers, the court applied the governmental interest test to CLRA, UCL, and FAL claims asserted on behalf of a national class, 2013 WL 5487236, at *15-16, at the class certification but with only minimal fact-specific analysis. That court concluded that a national class could not be certified in light of Mazza. 2014 WL 2191901, at *18-21. Likewise, in Brazil v. Dole Food Co., Inc., the court deferred until class certification to consider whether California state-law claims could be asserted on behalf of nonresident class members, but then held that Mazza precluded certification of a national class. 2014 WL 2466559, at *12-14. As in Blue Diamond, the court was able to reach this conclusion with minimal fact-specific analysis. See id. The court concluded that here it was highly unlikely that discovery would uncover information relevant to whether Frenzel could maintain a national class action asserting claims under California law.
Thus, under California's choice of law rules, Frenzel's claims (both individual and class) had to be dismissed. Frenzel's individual claims were dismissed because he had not identified the state in which he purchased his device, but admitted it was not California. Defendant had the burden to demonstrate the material differences in the relevant law of California and the other state or states with regard to the particular claims and facts of the case, and a plaintiff may not preclude a defendant from making it by obfuscating the state in which he purchased his product. As to Frenzel's class claims, the court found that defendant adequately demonstrated that this was a case, like Mazza, where "each class member's consumer protection claim[s] should be governed by the consumer protection laws of the jurisdiction in which the transaction took place." 666 F.3d at 594. The CLRA, UCL, and FAL claims on behalf of the putative class were subject to dismissal for this reason as well.
Plaintiff sought to rely on a choice of law provision allegedly in the terms and conditions of sale of the product, although he never pleaded such terms in his complaint. Moreover, the plain language of the terms limited their application to on-line purchases, and plaintiff alleged he purchased his in a store. Also, the allegations of defect did not claim that the product violated the terms and conditions. See Nikolin v. Samsung Electronics Am., Inc., No. 10-cv-01456, 2010 WL 4116997, at *4 (D.N.J. Oct. 18, 2010); see also, In re Sony Gaming Networks & Customer Data Sec. Breach Litig., 903 F. Supp. 2d 942, 964-65 (S.D. Cal. 2012) (rejecting argument that plaintiffs' CLRA, UCL, and FAL claims were governed by the choice of law provision in defendants' terms of service contract, where "[b]y its own terms, . . . the provision dictates only that California law applies to the construction and interpretation of the contract, and thus the provision does not apply to plaintiffs' non-contractual claims asserted under California's consumer protection statutes").
Complaint dismissed with leave to try to amend.