Third Circuit Rejects Medical Monitoring in Device Case

The Third Circuit has properly recognized that a claim for medical monitoring claim does not lie against the manufacturer of a medical device product. See M.G. v. A.I. DuPont Hospital for Children, No. 09-1426 (3d Cir., 8/24/10).

Readers may recall the post about this appeal last year.  Doctors at the A.I. duPont Hospital for Children in Wilmington, Delaware, had implanted a Cheatham Platinum stent (“CP stent”) in plaintiffs, who alleged that they had been injured or were at risk of injury from the use of the CP stent. After discovery, the trial court granted summary judgment to defendants on a number of the claims, but summary judgment was denied on Count VI, the medical monitoring claim. The trial court predicted that the Delaware Supreme Court would recognize a medical monitoring cause of action if presented with the facts of these cases.

The trial court recognized that there were substantial grounds for disagreement over whether Delaware will actually recognize a cause of action for medical monitoring. Even if the Delaware Supreme Court were to recognize a medical monitoring claim, there were substantial grounds for disagreement over whether plaintiffs here could state a claim. Plaintiffs' specific theory that medical devices can be the basis for a medical monitoring claim is novel, at best (and has been rejected in many states: Drugs and devices do not present the same policy issues as involuntary exposure to environmental toxins). The trial court was satisfied that plaintiff's novel theory here was one in which certification of an interlocutory order for appeal was appropriate.

The Third Circuit noted that plaintiff’s claim entitled “Medical Monitoring” contended that “[a]s a direct result of defendants’ acts, omissions, and conduct, plaintiffs . . . who have received NuMED CP stent have been exposed to a hazardous procedure and product, and suffered a significantly increased risk of the side effects caused by this device. This increased risk makes periodic diagnostic and medical examinations reasonable and necessary.”

While the district court predicted that the Delaware Supreme Court would recognize a medical monitoring cause of action, the appeals court didn't have to reach that broader question because it concluded that plaintiffs were unable to establish the elements necessary to state a claim for medical monitoring.

Defendants contended on appeal  that the trial court erred in extending Delaware law beyond the bounds of the recognized medical monitoring claim (in those minority of states that accept it) in which a plaintiff alleges long-term involuntary exposure to a proven toxic substance with known tendencies to produce serious future medical injuries. The Third Circuit agreed, finding no persuasive cases anywhere in which a free-standing medical monitoring claim has been allowed to proceed although the plaintiff has not demonstrated significant exposure to a toxic (poisonous) or proven hazardous substance. The lower court’s prediction that the Delaware Supreme Court would permit a claim for medical monitoring on this record thus requires several “leaps” from the current state of the law, generally, let alone Delaware law.

Specifically, here, there was no toxic or hazardous substance, as such. While unapproved devices are termed “adulterated”, they are not necessarily harmful, and certainly not toxic. Moreover, the risk here is not a risk of  “contracting a serious latent disease.” Rather, it is a risk of the need for further care. Further examinations are not to “monitor” the risk of disease, but to perform routine
oversight of the device. Thus, even if the Delaware Supreme Court would recognize a “standard” medical monitoring claim --one which requires a plaintiff to demonstrate that a defendant’s
negligence caused the plaintiff to be exposed to a proven hazardous substance that resulted in a significantly increased risk of contracting a serious latent disease -- the plaintiff here could not demonstrate that she had been exposed to a proven hazardous substance, nor could she prove that such exposure resulted in a significantly increased risk of contracting a serious latent disease.

Accordingly, the court found that plaintiff was unable to establish the elements necessary to make out a claim for medical monitoring.  Summary judgment should have been granted.

On a personal note, also on the winning brief was my former partner, the late R. Nicholas Gimbel, Esq., an outstanding advocate, in one of his last cases.  On the amicus brief for PLAC was my colleague James M. Beck, Esq.
 

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