Peer Review (Part II)

In yesterday’s post, MassTortDefense began discussion of a peer review issue commented on in this week's New England Journal of Medicine. The editorial comments on two cases in which Pfizer served discovery on the journal, seeking peer-review and other editorial documents on manuscripts concerning Pfizer's Bextra and Celebrex, which of course have been the subject of litigation. Pfizer sought peer-review documents, including the critiques prepared by reviewers for the authors. The logic is that the critiques might help reveal flaws in methodology in the research. This was seen as particularly important given significant imprimatur of the NEJM and the use of its published studies in the cases.

In the case In re Bextra and Celebrex Marketing Sales Practices and Product Liability Litigation,
2008 WL 859207 (D.Mass. March 31, 2008) the court rejected the discovery, and granted the journal’s motion for a protective order. The court began by noting that the NEJM is the world's oldest and most frequently-cited medical journal. Physicians rely on information presented in the NEJM to follow medical developments and improve patient care. Manuscripts submitted for publication by the NEJM are subject to “peer review,” i.e., to screening and analysis conducted by experts in the subject matter discussed within the submitted articles. Peer reviewers are given a draft manuscript and are asked to provide a confidential, frank, honest evaluation of the manuscript's scientific validity and to provide an overall opinion with respect to a manuscript's “worthiness for publication.” Information from peer reviewers which is communicated to the authors does not reveal the identity of the peer reviewer. The NEJM informs prospective peer reviewers that it will maintain the confidentiality of their identities, unless the reviewer grants specific permission to the contrary. None of the peer reviewers for the eleven Bextra and Celebrex articles published had given the NEJM permission to disclose his or her identity.


The published articles were relevant to the MDL litigation and to plaintiffs’ allegations that Pfizer failed to act upon the results of studies described in the scientific literature, and that it was on notice from those studies of the alleged risks presented by the drugs.

 
At a hearing on the motion, Pfizer apparently narrowed the scope of its request, and withdrew its requests seeking certain documents reflecting the peer reviewer comments which were not shared with the authors, internal editorial comments or processes

Rule 26 and Rule 45 require application of a balancing test looking at whether the information can be obtained from some other source that is more convenient, less burdensome, or less expensive, the burden or expense of the proposed discovery, and its likely benefit, considering the needs of the case, the amount in controversy, the parties' resources, the importance of the issues at stake in the action, and the importance of the discovery in resolving the issues. Specifically here that would include the objector's interest in confidentiality and the potential injury to the free flow of information that disclosure may create. Another factor entitled, said the court, to special weight in conducting this balancing test is that the NEJM was a non-party to the MDL.

The district court concluded that the materials were relevant, but their probative value was limited. The reasoning was that plaintiffs' claims focus on what Pfizer knew, or should have known, via published articles in the scholarly literature. The peer reviewers' confidential comments don’t speak directly to that issue, the court thought. Of course, what a product seller should take from a published article does depend in great measure on the quality of the article, its methodology, is biases, its power, and other aspect peer reviewers are likely to comment upon. But the court felt that Pfizer's own experts were able to review and analyze the articles for flaws in methodology, and the peer reviewer comments contain no new data.


Peer review comments could also potentially be useful to impeach any causation experts of plaintiffs who rely on the studies, and to provide ammunition for defense causation experts. The court however, worried that this reflected a “growing problem” with the use of subpoenas to compel the giving of evidence and information by unretained experts. That seems a somewhat narrow and uniformed view of what defendants typically do when confronted with a mass tort or MDL: they retain as many of the best experts they can find.

Balancing against that probative value, the court analogized the peer review process to the level of protection offered academics engaged in pre-publication research. Because the peer review contributes to the advancement of medicine and science by helping to ensure that faulty, incomplete, or misleading results are not published, and because a journal’s ability to advance medical knowledge in this way might be impaired, resulting in adverse consequences for physicians, patient care, and for society as a whole, the Journal’s objections seemed persuasive to the court. If reviewers thought their names or reviews would be subject to disclosure in unrelated litigation, there would be “chilling effect” on the peer review process and as a result, upon the medical community. The comments are both part of scholarly research efforts as well as part of the editorial process of a print publication. The court concluded that any wholesale disclosure by the NEJM of the peer reviewer comments communicated to authors will be harmful to the NEJM's ability to fulfill both its journalistic and scholarly missions, and by extension harmful to the medical and scientific communities, and to the public interest. Thus the subpoena was quashed.

The Northern District of Illinois, similarly, declined to compel compliance with similar subpoenas served by Pfizer in the same MDL on the Journal of the American Medical Association and the Archives of Internal Medicine. In re Bextra and Celebrex, C.A. No. 08C 402 (N.D.Ill. March 14, 2008). The district court there found that the any probative value of the requested information was outweighed by the burden imposed on the journals in invading the sanctity of the peer review process. In short, it was not unreasonable to believe that compelling production of peer review documents would compromise the process.

But it raises an interesting, perhaps test-able, question whether disclosure of comments would discourage people from submitting articles to the journal, or peer reviewers from commenting on manuscripts.  Isn't a prestigious thing to be able to say "I am a peer reviewer for the NEJM"? After all, a large part of the the academic world involves defending one's scholarly work in public, in symposia, in class rooms, etc.  And scientists frequently publish comments, letters to the editor, publicly critiquing others' work. Wonder if any respected journal conduct peer review in which complete confidentiality is not promised the reviewers?

Yesterday’s editorial commented that confidential peer review is a key component of the manuscript selection process. The Journal’s stand was consistent with the views of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. The ICMJE is a group of about 500 general medical journal editors whose participants meet annually and has produced a number of editions of uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. See Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication.


In its Uniform Requirements, the ICMJE states that unbiased, independent, critical assessment is an intrinsic part of all scholarly work, including the scientific process. Peer review is the critical assessment of manuscripts submitted to journals by experts who are not part of the editorial staff. Peer review can therefore be viewed as an important extension of the scientific process. Reviewers have rights to confidentiality, which must be respected by the editor. Editors must not disclose information about manuscripts (including their receipt, content, status in the reviewing process, criticism by reviewers, or ultimate fate) to anyone other than the authors and reviewers. “This includes requests to use the materials for legal proceedings.”

It will be interesting to watch and see if the issue arises again in a case in which the party seeking the information -- and might it be plaintiffs under the proper facts? -- can show a higher degree of probative value.

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